The Byzantine Empire

 

The Byzantine Empire history

The Notitia Dignitatum indicates that the Comites Taifalos unit came under the command of the Magister Militum Praesentalis I which according to the chart below was located near the capital city of Byzantium, later known as Constantinople.

The Byzantine Empire, also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. It survived the 5th century fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. It's citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, Latin: Imperium Romanum), or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans". Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire's east and west divided. In 285, the emperor Diocletian partitioned the Roman Empire's administration into eastern and western halves. Between 324 and 330, Constantine I transferred the main capital from Rome to Byzantium, later known as Constantinople ("City of Constantine") and Nova Roma ("New Rome"). Under Theodosius I (379–395), Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and others such as Roman polytheism were proscribed. And finally, under the reign of Heraclius (610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. Although it continued the Roman state and maintained Roman state traditions, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Orthodox Christianity rather than Roman polytheism.

The Magister Militum Praesentalis I lists 36 units being under the command of the first Master of the Soldiers in the Imperial Presence:

5 Vexillationes palatinae: (Latin: companies of court): Equites promoti seniors; Comites clibanarii; Comites sagittarii iuniores; Comites Taifali; Equites Arcades

A palatine or palatinus is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times. A vexillatio (plural vexillationes) was a detachment of a Roman legion formed as a temporary task force created by the Roman army of the Principate. It was named from the standard carried by legionary detachments, the vexillum, which bore the emblem and name of the parent legion. Vexillationes were the usual cavalry units found on campaign. In the 4th century the Vexillationes palatinae and Vexilationes comitatenses of the Roman field armies are thought to have been either 300 or 600 men strong. The Notitia Dignitatum lists 88 vexillationes